(Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, known as a peppercorn, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The fruit is a drupe (stone fruit) which is about 5 mm (0.20 in) in diameter (fresh and fully mature), dark red, and contains a stone that encloses a single pepper seed. Peppercorns and the ground pepper derived from them may be described simply as pepper, or more precisely as black pepper
(cooked and dried unripe fruit), green pepper (dried unripe fruit), or white pepper.
There are High antioxidants in pepper. Free radicals are unstable molecules that can damage your cells. Some free radicals are created naturally — such as when you exercise and digest food. However, excessive free radicals can be formed with exposure to things like pollution, cigarette smoke, and sun rays. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Chronic inflammation may be an underlying factor in many conditions, such as arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Many laboratory studies suggest that piperine — the main active compound in black pepper — may effectively fight inflammation.
It may benefit your brain. Piperine has been shown to improve brain function in animal studies. In particular, it has demonstrated potential benefits for symptoms related to degenerative brain conditions like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. It may improve your blood sugar control. Studies suggest that piperine may help improve blood sugar metabolism. It may lower cholesterol levels. High blood cholesterol is associated with an increased risk of heart disease, which is the leading cause of death.
It may have cancer-fighting properties. Researchers hypothesize that the active compound in black pepper, piperine, may have cancer-fighting. Though no human trials have been performed, test-tube studies found that piperine slowed the replication of breast, prostate, and colon cancer cells and induced cancer cell death.
boosts the absorption of nutrients. Black pepper may increase the absorption of essential nutrients like calcium and selenium, as well as some beneficial plant compounds, such as those found in green tea and turmeric. It may promote gut health. The makeup of your gut bacteria has been linked to immune function, mood, chronic diseases, and more. Preliminary research suggests that black pepper
may increase the good bacteria in your gut.
It may offer pain relief. Though it has yet to be studied in humans, studies in rodents suggest that the piperine in black pepper may be a natural pain reliever. It may reduce appetite. In a small study, 16 adults reported reduced appetite after drinking a black-pepper-based beverage compared to flavored water. However, other studies did not show the same effects.